This edition of Torture Journal explores the medical and legal basis for finding Enforced Disappearance - the deprivation of liberty by agents of the State followed by the refusal to acknowledge the fate or whereabouts of the detainee - to be a form of torture. 

Enforced Disappearance is a composite human rights violation that involves two kinds of victims: first, the direct victim, who suffered the violence of abduction, the anguish of being held defenceless in an unknown place and who, in most cases, suffered physical or psychological torture; and, on the other hand, the relatives of the disappeared. The level of anguish and suffering inflicted on family members has been repeatedly considered by the medical and psychological community to be of sufficient severity to meet the threshold of the definition of torture.


Current debates, developments and challenges regarding torture, enforced disappearances and human rights

Pau Perez-Sales; Bernard Duhaime; Juan Méndez 

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Research and Scientific articles

Grief among relatives of disappeared persons in the context of state violence: an impossible process?

Manon Bourguignon, Alice Dermitzel, Muriel Katz
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The aftermath of enforced disappearance and concealment. A qualitative inquiry with families in Paine, Chile

Nicolás Morales-Sáez Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Joel Espina

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Who are they to say? Experiences and legal recognition of victimhood of enforced disappearance in Colombia and El Salvador

Pamel Favre, Mina Caren Rauschenbach (Researcher), Alejandro Jimenez, Ana Srovin Coralli, Bronwen Webster, Lisa Ott

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Addressing a forgotten struggle: Victims of enforced disappearance in Africa

Alejandra Vicente, Eva Nudd REDRESS

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Analyzing long-term impacts of counterinsurgency tools in civil wars: A case study of enforced disappearances in Algeria

Aïcha Madi, Université de Montréal

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The half-widows of Kashmir: A discourse of enforced disappearance

Inamul Haq, Central University of Gujarat

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Screening asylum seekers in Denmark for torture using a structured questionnaire

Ebbe Munk-Andersen, Red Cross Denmark, Bettina Toftgaard, Red Cross Denmark, Jens Modvig, Medical Director Dignity Institute

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The chronic traumatic stress treatment (CTS-T): A resilience-focused, culturally responsive intervention for refugees and survivors of torture - including a mobile mental health application

Karen M Fondacaro, University of Vermont, Emily C Mazzula, Marquette University, Holly T Weldon, University of Vermont

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Efficacy of pharmacotherapy for psychiatric sequelae of torture

Dongmi Kim Fairleigh, Dickinson University, Ashley Taneja, John W Schiemann, Anam Nawab

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Letters to the Editor

We need to teach human rights in medical schools

Daniel Weishut, Hadassah Academic College, Lucy Aitchison, Bettina Steiner-Birmanns

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Protecting LGBT+ persons in Africa from torture: Challenges, opportunities, and comparative experiences

Renata Politi, REDRESS, Chris Esdaile

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Continuous Education

Forensic Case Series, a source of information and continuing education for health and legal practitioners involved in the forensic evaluation of survivors of torture.

James Lin, Ben McVane, Berta Soley

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