HRW found at least 20 protesters were likely directly killed by the police. Local NGOs, including the Defend Freedom Campaign and IRCT member the Centre for Psychological Assistance (CAPS), have documented at least 78 deaths around the protests, with at least 98 injured.
In the municipality of Madrid, near the capital Bogotá, CAPS said evidence had been gathered of police beating to death 24-year-old Elvis Vivas, a car assembly worker who had joined protests in his local neighbourhood of El Sosiego.
In total, nearly 4,000 cases of physical violence against protesters have been documented, according to CAPS, with around 100 of those being specific gender-based sexual violence, including multiple rapes.
President Duque has repeatedly insisted that most Colombian police respect the human rights of civilians, and has said that any police who act illegally will be punished. On 6 June, he announced steps to “transform” the police. In its last review of Colombia in 2015, the Committee Against Torture expressed concern “at the number of persons who have been shot to death or wounded by gunshot during confrontations between demonstrators and security forces in the course of social protests.”